ISSN: 2763-602X

Guide for Authors

The Journal of Medical Resident Research (JMRR), previously called Revista do Médico Residente (RMR), is an official scientific publication of the Regional Council of Medicine of the State of São Paulo (Cremesp), focused on the publication of medical articles by medical scientists, who are at the begining of their careers. Its main objective is to disseminate medical-scientific knowledge, especially among doctors in training and residency programs.

To this end, contributions of this target audience in technical, ethical, bioethical and deontological articles are encouraged.

Each manuscript, in English and/or Portuguese, must clearly indicate an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods, including the characteristics of the institution where the research took place, criteria for the selection and exclusion of participants, and data sources; essential points of the interventions and analyses; main results of the study and its limitations; “discussion” section that interacts with the scientific literature; and conclusions.

Except when explicitly indicated, JMRR complies with rules and similar standards in the area, such as the Brazilian Federal Law No 6,932, of July 7, 1981, which provides for the activities of medical residents; those of the National Medical Residency Committee; and CNS Resolution No 466/12, of the Brazilian National Health Council (CNS), which establishes guidelines for research involving human beings.

For the preparation/submission of articles, authors are suggested to follow the standards of the EQUATOR Reporting Guidelines (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of Health Research), an organization that brings together researchers, editors of medical journals, reviewers, developers of guidelines on scientific texts, among others.

Other recommendations also include those of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, a group of editors of medical journals and related organizations that work together; the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE); the Council of Science Editors (CSE); and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME).

These standards aim to improve the quality of research, journals and medical science in general;

In addition to EQUATOR, the following are mentioned in this Guide:

CONSORT – Consolidated of Reporting Trials
MOOSE – Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology
PRISMA – Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
STARD – Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies
ARRIVE – Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments

After all the stages of preparation, realization and concretization of the final version have been completed, the manuscripts must be submitted to


For better understanding and standardization, some terms mentioned in this Guide for Authors are presented below:

Case-control studies – Study design in which participants are selected from those who have a certain disease (cases) and those who do not (controls) to compare the odds of exposure to a particular variable between groups.

Cohort studies – Observational surveys in which individuals are classified or selected according to exposure status, and the incidence of a disease or condition is compared.

Experimental study (intervention) – One in which the researcher, in an intentional and controlled way, manipulates the exposure factor (intervention) to investigate its effects. They investigate hypotheses previously made, or look for factors that contribute to the onset of a certain disease.

Clinical trial – Experimental study with human volunteers, used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of treatments or interventions against diseases and health conditions of any nature and determine the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of new therapies.

Randomized clinical trial – In general, it is a clinical trial that compares two or more interventions, which are controlled by the researchers and applied randomly to a group of participants. 

Quasi-experimental study – A study that does not contemplate all the characteristics of a “true” experiment, as a complete experimental control is not always possible, especially with regard to the randomization and application of the intervention.

Observational study – Conducted without the action of the investigator, who simply observes and measures the object of study (patients, the characteristics of the disease, etc.), without intervening or modifying any aspect being studied.

Prevalence or cross-sectional study – The measurement of the risk factors and the analyzed outcome occur concomitantly, not allowing inferring what came first (exposure or outcome).

Keywords – Section of the scientific article composed of three or four words, used for indexing it in databases. (Bireme Health Descriptors are suggested).

Qualitative research – It does not stick to numerical representativeness: in this approach, researchers seek to explain the reason for things, working with the universe of meanings, motives, aspirations, beliefs, values and attitudes.

Quantitative research – Its results can be quantified. As the samples are generally large and considered “representative”, the statistically significant results are taken as if they constitute a real picture of the entire target population.

Abstract – Its main purpose is to provide an overview of the research. To this end, the objective, method, results and conclusions must be highlighted. Abstracts are classified in Structured – formed by “strata”, i.e., items or sections –, each preceded by a subtitle, and Unstructured – presents information in running text, usually in a single paragraph. (See more about the topic in Requirements for the Preparation and Submission of Articles > Structure).

Case report and series – Corresponds to the detailed description of clinical cases, containing important characteristics about the signs, symptoms, and other characteristics of the patient, the therapeutic procedures used, as well as the outcome. Case reports usually comprise no more than three cases, while case series comprise three to ten cases.

Systematic review with meta-analysis – The object of analysis are not the study participants, but previous studies on a particular research object. Meta-analysis is understood as a statistical technique that is especially suitable for combining results from different independent studies, identifying and comparing, for example, the risks involved in two different treatments.


1.1 Original Articles

Usually include experimental, quasi- -experimental or observational studies, program evaluations, randomized clinical trials, intervention studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiological studies, other observational studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, decision-making analyses, screening studies, and diagnostic tests. See specific guidelines for each type of study on the EQUATOR website.

Each article should contain its objectives and hypotheses, designs and methods, results, discussion and conclusions, which should be as timely and current as possible. A clear explanation of the methods and results is essential to make it easier to review the articles and to ensure the replicability of the results.

Original articles also involve theoretical essays (critiques and formulation of relevant theoretical knowledge), focused on the presentation and discussion of methodological aspects and techniques used in medical research.

• Maximum of 3,000 words
• Maximum of five tables and/or figures
• Structured abstract with no more than 350 words
• Up to 60 references
• Keywords

1.1.1. Clinical trials or studies

Any research project with participation of human beings inserted in groups for intervention and comparison, aiming to study the cause-effect relationship and the health outcome.

Interventions include (but are not limited to) experiments with drugs, surgical procedures, equipment, behavioral treatments, educational programs, dietary interventions, quality of life improvements, changes in the care process, and the like.

Articles that present partial or integral results of clinical trials must be accompanied by the number and the agency of registration, as recommended by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME); the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO); the World Health Organization (on the Register of Clinical Trials to be published based on WHO guidelines); and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

• Maximum of 3,000 words
• Maximum of five tables and/or figures, including a CONSORT flowchart
• Structured abstract with no more than 350 words
• Keywords
• Registration number of the Clinical Trials in a database (e.g.,
• CONSORT checklist
• In accordance with EQUATOR guidelines
• Up to 60 references

1.2 Special Articles
1.2.1. Methodological Articles

These articles feature new, improved, or noteworthy comments on techniques or methods deemed as relevant to basic, clinical, or treatment studies.

• Maximum of 2,000 words
• Maximum of two tables and/or figures
• Structured abstract with no more than 350 words
• Up to 30 references

1.2.2. Short communications

Short reports of findings of interest, but which do not include a more comprehensive analysis and discussion.

• Maximum of 1,200 words
• Maximum of three tables and/or figures
• Structured abstract with no more than 250 words
• Keywords
• Up to 15 references
• In accordance with EQUATOR guidelines

2.1 Systematic Reviews (without meta-analyses)

It aims to answer a specific question by synthesizing results from original quantitative or qualitative studies, according to PRISMA guidelines, with evaluation of the scientific literature and data sources on a clinical topic, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy or prevention, and describing in detail the process of searching for original studies; the inclusion criteria; and how the results of these studies were synthesized.

• Maximum of 3,500 words
• Maximum of five tables and/or figures, including a PRISMA diagram
• Structured abstract with no more than 350 words
• Up to 100 references
• Keywords
• In accordance with PRISMA guidelines and submitted to the PRISMA Checklist

2.2 Narrative review

Up-to-date review on a topic of interest from the perspective of renowned experts, which addresses an issue that is relevant to clinical practice.

It may include (but does not require) a systematic review of the literature.

Conclusions can be based on recent evidence and guidelines, with an emphasis on factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy or prevention.

• Between 2,000-3,500 words
• Maximum of five tables and/or figures
• Structured abstract
• Up to 100 references
• Keywords

2.3 Meta-analyses

Systematic and critical evaluations of the literature and data sources, referring to clinical topics, with emphasis on factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy or prevention.

In research with meta-analysis, a statistical technique is adopted to quantitatively combine the results of more than one study into a single total estimate.

For each specific type of article or data source, the methodology, population, intervention, exposure and tests must be described.

They must be submitted to the PRISMA checklist, and present the PRISMA flowchart used for the selection of articles. Authors of meta-analyses of observational studies should submit them to the MOOSE checklist and follow EQUATOR guidelines.

• Maximum of 3,500 words
• Maximum of five tables and/or figures, including a PRISMA diagram
• Structured abstract with no more than 350 words
• Keywords
• In accordance with EQUATOR guidelines, especially PRISMA and MOOSE
• Up to 100 references

3.1 Editorial

Article presenting JMRR’s opinion on a given subject, reflecting the point of view of the majority of the editorial board and the journal’s administrative body – therefore, it is not signed by a particular editor. In essence, it is an opinionated and objective report on a specific article – or a review of some relevant articles – in the issue of the journal in question.

Doctors who are not involved in the journal’s editorial board and administrative staff may be invited by the editors to write it, depending on the subject at hand.

3.2 Letter to the Editor

Related to the methods used to obtain or interpret data presented in an article published in the latest issues of JMRR. It may perform a new analysis of these data based on other scientific articles and/or methods and/or journals. It can also include a case report that is capable of illustrating new information.

When justified, a response from the author(s) of the study in question is requested.

Requirements (Letter to the Editor) :
• Maximum of 400 words
• Maximum of three authors
• Up to five references (one of which must be the article in question)

Requirements (Response from the author(s):
• Maximum of 500 words
• Up to six references

3.3 Point of view

External manuscript that is well-focused, academic and clearly presented, generally not linked to a specific article. It can address any important topic in Medicine, Medical Residency, Research, New Discoveries, Public Health, Prevention, Ethics and Bioethics, and Health Policies or Standards.

• Maximum of 1,200 words (or 1,000 if accompanied by a small table or figure)
• Maximum of three authors, with no more than two affiliations per author
• Up to seven references


1.1 Structure

The structure of an original article or a review consists of pre-textual, textual and post-textual elements.

The mandatory structural elements are the Title, Abstract and Submission and Approval Dates. Title and Abstract in other language(s) are optional. The textual elements are mandatory, and correspond to the elements usually standardized in scientific articles, as follows: Title, Name of authors, Keywords, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions and Bibliographic References.

As for the post-textual elements, the References are mandatory, whereas the Glossary, Appendix, Annex, and Acknowledgments are optional.

It is recommended that the Abstract highlights the objective, method, results and conclusions of the document; that it is written in the active voice, third person singular; and that it is composed of a sequence of concise, affirmative sentences, in a single paragraph. The first sentence should be significant, explaining the main theme, followed by information about the research category (case study, analysis of the situation, etc.)

It is also suggested that the Introduction provides a brief narrative, indicating the objectives/hypotheses of the current study. It should not include the results. As for the Materials and Methods section, it must include enough details to allow other researchers to disseminate and/or replicate the study.

Attention: The maximum word limits of articles submitted to JMRR exclude Abstracts, Tables and Figures.

1.2 Formatting

The Title of the article and the subtitle (if any) must appear on the title page, in Portuguese or English, and be typographically differentiated or separated by a colon. Including the title in another language just below the original title is optional; additionally, centering it at the top of the title page and writing it in bold is recommended.

The name of the Authors must be inserted directly: first name (abbreviated or not) and last name, and it is suggested that they are written in full, each separated by a comma, in the same way as the names of the Institutions.

If there is more than one author, the names can be written on the same line, separated by commas, or on different lines. A succinct resume of each author must be included, with corporate association and contact address.

The Keywords must appear just below the abstract, preceded by the term “Keywords”. Each of them must be separated and finalized by a period.

It is suggested adopting the Health Descriptors of the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (Bireme), which correspond to a translation of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the U.S National Library of Medicine, used by databases such as Scielo, Lilacs, VHL, MEDLINE and Pub Med.

These descriptors contain terms in English, Portuguese and Spanish.

JMRR recommends the articles to be arranged in a Single Column, in an A4 Sheet, Portrait Format. Font: Times New Roman, with the title in 14 pt; the subtitles and body text in 12 pt; the abstract in 11 pt; and citations with more than three lines in 10 pt, with four cm indentation from the left margin.

Additionally, 1.5 spacing and justified alignment should be used for paragraphs in the text, marked with a 1.5 indentation. There must be no blank line between paragraphs.

Page numbers need to be inserted in the upper right margin, with the exception of the first. Margins: left and top: three cm / right and bottom: two cm (do not include frames).

It is also recommended to start all sections on separate pages and divide the sections and subsections by assigning them Arabic numerals, aligning the section code with the left margin, preceding the title and separated from it by a space. Numbering should be progressive up to the quinary section, e.g.:

Primary section "1"
Secondary section "1.1"
Tertiary section "1.1.1"
Quaternary section ""
Quinary section "".

1. 3 Bibliographical references and citations

References are a a standardized set of essential elements that allow identifying or locating a document or part of it, published in different platforms or formats.

They must be presented in a standardized manner, according to the guidelines of specific organizations. Complementary elements can be added, whenever necessary, to facilitate the identification of the document.

The extraction of text citations from other studies can be done directly (literal transcription) and indirectly (paraphrase), duly documented with the name of the author of the original source.

JMRR adopts the standards established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, which adopts Vancouver). These standards govern all citations in the body text.

For example, in articles written by between one and six authors, the references will obey the following form:

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of the article. Short name of the journal. Publication date YYYY ddd; issue number: page numbers.
João GR, Maria JC, Antônio LC. Como resistir a um assédio moral durante a fase de internato. Rev. bioet. 2018 Dez; 54(1):111-4.

Articles with more than six authors are referenced as follows:

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD, Author EE, Author FF, et al. Title of the article. Short name of the journal. Publication date YYYY ddd; issue number: page numbers.

João GR, Maria JC, Antônio LC, Joaquim KK,Rita OPG, Clara BO, et al. Relação do preceptor com os residentes e seus conflitos éticos. Saúde Soc. 2017 Jun; 200(6): 869-75

* Learn more about the Vancouver standard at Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal Articles, NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine

1.4 Figures and tables

In general, figures and tables are the fastest way to communicate large amounts of information, which would be complicated to explain in text. Figures are ideal for displaying images, data graphs and layouts.

Images can help achieve the precision needed for a scientific manuscript: when choosing, the author must make sure to include scale bars, highlight important items, and identify the meaning of the different colors and symbols used.

Data graphs demonstrate the functional or statistical relationship between two or more items. In them, the axes must be highlighted, as well as the units for quantities, the curves, and the data sets, with legible font and size.

As for schemes, they correspond to the visual representation of abstract or immaterial concepts that relate to each other, forming a symbolic figure. Scientific and/or material schemes are used for investigative and theoretical purposes, and respond to a demonstrative or hypothetical objective to theorize about some aspect of science or logic.

Tables represent an objective way of presenting large amounts of data and communicating the results of studies. Thus, among other requirements, they must have clear and concise legends; data divided into categories; sufficient spacing between columns and rows; specification of units; and legible font and size.

Additionally, they must be cited in the text and numbered consecutively (i.e., 1, 2, 3) in the order in which they are mentioned, and must be provided in an editable format (Word or Excel). They can be included at the end of the manuscript’s file or sent individually, but not both.

When the researcher plans to include tables in the manuscript, s/he must determine: 1) the details necessary for readers to understand the discussion; 2) a sufficient set of statistics that is capable of supporting the inferential methods used; 3) how to define it so that it can be understood in isolation.

For the preparation of tables, try to limit their content to essential materials: those with excess information become less effective. Although supplementary tables may be longer and more detailed than text tables, their role is to be directly and clearly related to the content and to be an integral part of the text.
The basic components of the table prototype are shown above, including the technical terms, the location of the items, and the definition of each element.

The layout must be logical and easily understandable to the reader. Table entries with data comparisons must be close to each other. Following this principle, in general, different indices (e.g., means, standard deviations, sample sizes) have to be segregated into different parts or lines.

Tables are designed to show something specific. For example, those with the purpose of communicating quantitative information will be effective only when they seem obvious to the reader at a glance. The same data can be organized in different ways, in order to emphasize the different characteristics of each datum.

An informational table complements the text, rather than duplicating it, leading readers to what to look for: if it is necessary to search for each item in the text, then the table will be unnecessary. Likewise, if additional tables are included in supplementary online files, they must be mentioned briefly in the article’s printed version. Additionally, tables designated as “supplementary materials” must be accompanied by sufficient information to be understood by themselves.

Expressions such as “the table above”, “below”, or “the table on p. 45” should be avoided, because the tables’ placement is not defined until the layout has been designed.

Following the logic of objectivity, authors may consider combining tables with repeated data. In general, identical columns and rows do not appear in two or more tables in the same article. The presentation of all tables in the manuscript should be consistent to facilitate comparisons, using similar formats and titles and the same terminology (e.g., response time or reaction time – not both).

Examples of figures and tables can be obtained in the manual of the Public Health School of the University of São Paulo (FSP-USP). Another suggestion is the Manual of the American Psychological Association.


Before submitting an article, all authors must have approved the final version to be submitted. The full manuscript or data must not have been previously published (except in summary or pre- -printed form) or be currently under evaluation for publication elsewhere.

All manuscripts must be sent to, indicating a valid email address of all authors.

To ensure transparency, the authors are expected to declare other articles that have used the same dataset or sample, in addition to identifying tables, figures and/or data that have been published in another journal, being responsible for obtaining permission from the copyright owner(s) if they decide to reproduce and/or modify any previously published material.

At the end of the submission, the person designated in the system as the “corresponding author” (responsible for the intermediation with the editorial team of JMRR) will receive an email notification stating that the text was received by the Editorial Office. If this does not happen, it means that there was a problem during the submission process, which should be informed to JMRR. Any manuscripts that do not comply with these guidelines will be returned to the author for correction.

Once processed, the submission will receive a number. Throughout the process, the status of the article will be available to the corresponding author, who is allowed to upload the entire submission (except the cover letter) in a single file when sending it, with numbered pages, in Word or PDF.

Tables and figures can be placed in the body of the manuscript or presented separately at the end. The authors must ensure that all elements are clearly legible to editors and reviewers.



To qualify as an “author”, the individual must have participated sufficiently in the study, assuming public responsibility for all or part of the content after it has been submitted, approved and published. “Participating” here means making substantial intellectual contributions to the study, in the form of: 1) conception and design and/or acquisition of data and/or data analysis; and 2) writing of the article and/or critical review in search of important intellectual content.

All individuals who meet the criteria for authorship must be nominated as “authors”. If the authorship is being assigned to a group, all of its members must meet the criteria described above.

Additionally, being an author also means agreeing to answer questions pertaining to the completeness of the article so that issues related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of it may be properly investigated and resolved.

Any changes in authorship after the initial submission, such as additions, exclusions, and reordering, must be approved in writing by the group, which may indicate the contribution of each author at the end of the article if they so wish.

When approving and finalizing the submission of a manuscript, JMRR assumes its recognition and acceptance, committing itself to reviewing and correcting the articles and ensuring that all individuals who meet the criteria for authorship are included on the title page, as well as that the submitted version is the one approved by all.

Disclosure of Financial Interests and Potential Conflicts of Interest

JMRR requires the authors of any type of articles to fully disclose possible conflicts of interest, including financial ones, in addition to specifying their nature. This is the responsibility of the entire group, under penalty of the article being returned, delaying the evaluation process.

Disclosure includes direct or indirect financial or personal relationships, as well as interests and affiliations that are relevant to the subject of the manuscript established in the last two years, or even those expected in the foreseeable future. It also covers (but is not limited to) grants or funding, affiliations, intellectual property/patents (in preparation, filed or granted), inventions, remuneration, consultancy and royalties.

Financial: financing and other payments, goods and services received or expected by the authors related to the subject of the study, or granted by an organization with an interest in the results. Affiliations: being an employee, on the advisory board or a member of an organization with an interest in the results. Intellectual property: patents or trademarks owned by someone or his/her organization.

Personal: friends, family, relationships and other close personal connections.

Ideological: beliefs or activism, for example, political or religious, that are relevant to the study.

Academic: competitors or someone whose study is criticized.

If an author has “nothing to declare”, this should be made explicit.

The sources of financing, such as research grants from private and public institutions (development agencies), must be indicated at the end of the article.

Ethical Considerations

The authors should consider all ethical issues that are relevant to their research.

For example, in the Materials and Methods section, the institutional and/or licensing committee that approved the experiment(s) should be identified, confirming that the study was carried out in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations.

Studies involving human subjects must include detailed information about the informed consent process, including the method(s) used to assess the participants’ ability to consent, the protection criteria included in the study, and relevant follow-up data, when available.

Among the ethical guidelines, JMRR follows those established by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, through the CEP/CONEP system (CNS Resolution No 466/12), and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, although it reserves the right to take alternative actions if necessary, including contacting the authors’ institution, funding agency, or other appropriate research authority.

Studies involving human beings must be submitted to the Research Ethics Committees (CEPs) of the institution where they will be carried out, and if necessary, to the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP), through the "Plataforma Brasil", an electronic system created by the Federal Government of Brazil to systematize the receipt of research projects by CEPs across the country. When analyzing and deciding, the CEP/CONEP system becomes co-responsible for ensuring the protection of the participants.

When reporting experiments on animals, the authors should indicate that the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals, such as ARRIVE, have been followed.

JMRR takes its responsibility for scientific integrity seriously, and will verify any allegations of misconduct, such as plagiarism, duplicate submission or publication, fabrication or falsification of data, unethical treatment of research subjects, authorship disputes, and undisclosed conflicts of interest.

Any corrections to the literature will be treated on a case-by-case basis, through errata or retractions.

Peer review

All submissions, with the exception of editorials, comments and correspondence, will be subject to peer review or refereeing, a process used in the publication of scientific articles that consists in passing them on to the evaluation of one or more more specialists with an advanced degree and expert level of knowledge on the subject addressed by the author.

These evaluators are supposed to make comments and suggest revisions, with the aim of contributing to the quality of the publication. JMRR excludes reviewers who work at the same institution or with any other conflicts of interest. The identity of the individual reviewers remains confidential to all parties except JMRR’s scientific and technical editors.

Submission processing

After the article has been submitted, it is previously analyzed by the editors of JMRR. If approved, it is passed on to external reviewers, after which the editorial decision and the reviewers’ suggestions/corrections will be sent by email to the corresponding author.

In case the opinion of the reviewers differs, the editors reserve the right to invite an additional reviewer. Opinions may decide for accepting or rejecting the study, and suggest small or major changes. Rejected studies may be resubmitted if the authors believe that an important reformulation has been carried out or new findings have been included, in which case they must resubmit the article, including a letter to the Editor- -in-Chief, justifying the resubmission. It will be up to the editorial board to accept it or not.

In the final phase, the article will be submitted to proofreading, the author being responsible for making final changes as requested and approving the final version.

JMRR will guide authors who submit their articles in Portuguese on English translation services.

After final acceptance, the article will be published online, becoming citable through the number assigned to the digital object identifier (DOI). The final written version will be published according to the journal’s periodicity, in an issue selected by the Editorial Board, which will also define its circulation.

The authors are responsible for carefully reviewing the entire article in relation to precision. Once a corrected article is published online, additional corrections cannot be made without an errata.

Registration of Clinical Trials

As a condition for publication, in accordance with ICMJE, JMRR requires prospective registration of all clinical trials. Therefore, the name of the study, the name of the repository and the registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

Observational-only studies will not require registration.

Return of articles and printing policies

If the editors of JMRR consider that the study did not reach the degree of interest or quality expected and/or is not in accordance with the Journal’s editorial and/or scientific standards, the manuscripts may be returned without undergoing an external revision. The editorial rejection has the purpose of speeding up the editorial process and allowing the articles to be reviewed and submitted to another scientific journal.

Returns at the discretion of the authors, in general, will not occur – exceptional cases will be assessed individually.

JMRR’s cover art is chosen according to the relevance of one of the articles included in the current issue or images from the History of Medicine.

JMRR is an open-access journal, but every use of its content must include a complete citation.


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